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Job Analysis


中国经济管理大学 MBA公益课堂

(加里·德斯勒)

Job Analysis


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                                                             Job Analysis



Lecture Outline

Strategic Overview

The Basics of Job Analysis

Uses of Job Analysis Information

Steps in Job Analysis

Job Analysis Guideline


Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information

The Interview

Questionnaires

Observation

Participant Diary/Logs

Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques

Internet-based Job Analysis

 

Writing Job Descriptions

Job Identification

Job Summary

Relationships

Responsibilities and Duties

       Standards of Performance & Working Conditions                                                                               

       Duty:  Accurately Posting Accounts Payable


Managing the New Workforce

       Duty:  Meeting Daily Production Schedule

       Using the Internet for Writing Job Descriptions


Writing Job Specifications

Specifications for Trained Versus Untrained Personnel

Specifications Based on Judgment

Job Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis


Job Analysis in a Worker-Empowered World

From Specialized to Enriched Jobs

Competency-Based Job Analysis

How to Write Job Competencies-Based Job Descriptions

In Summary:  Why Competency Analysis?

In Brief:  The human resource management process really begins with deciding what the job entails.  The uses of job analysis information and the methods of conducting a job analysis are detailed.  The tasks of writing job descriptions and job specifications are also outlined, and Internet resources are examined. Strategies to make the organization more responsive to competition, including enriching and competency-based job analysis are discussed.  And finally, explaining job analysis in a “worker-empowered” world is covered in this chapter.  


Interesting Issues:  Technology and the Internet can serve as a resource for companies to streamline their job analysis processes. Some organizations have shifted to HR systems that don’t use job descriptions. Competency-based analysis can support the flexibility needed by high performance organizations.


ANNOTATED OUTLINE


I. The Basics of Job Analysis


Job analysis – The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for the job by collecting the following types of information:  work activities; human behaviors; machines, tools, equipment, and work aids; performance standards; job context; and human requirements.  Job description – A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities – one product of a job analysis.  Job specification – A list of a job’s “human requirements”: the requisite education, skills, knowledge, and so on – another product of a job analysis.


A.  Uses of Job Analysis Information


     1. Recruitment and Selection – Job descriptions and job specifications are formed from the information gathered from a job analysis, which help management decide what sort of people to recruit and hire.


     2. Compensation – The estimated value and the appropriate compensation for each job is determined from the information gathered from a job analysis.


     3. Training – Based on the job analysis, the job description should show the job’s required activities and skills.


     4. Performance Appraisal – Managers use job analysis to determine a job’s specific activities and performance standards.

     5. Discovering Unassigned Duties – Job analysis can help reveal unassigned duties.


     6. EEO Compliance – The U.S. Federal Agencies’ Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection stipulate that job analysis is a crucial step in validating all major personnel activities.

B.  Steps in Job Analysis


     1. Decide how the information will be used because that will determine what data will be collected and how it should be collected.


     2. Review relevant background information, such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions.


     3. Select representative positions to analyze because there may be too many similar jobs to analyze, and it may not be necessary to analyze them all.


     4. Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job.


     5. Verify the job analysis information with job incumbents and supervisors to confirm that it is factually correct and complete.


     6. Develop a job description and job specification from the information. Increasingly, these steps are being streamlined through the use of collaboration software.


C.  A Quicker Approach for Supervisors


Job analysis can be a time-consuming process.  An abbreviated but still useful process would take just several hours.  The steps might include:


1)   Greet participants.


2)   Briefly explain the job analysis process and the participants’ roles in this process.


3)   Spend about 17 minutes interviewing the employees to get agreement on a basic summary of the job.


4)   Identify the job’s broad areas of responsibility, such as “accounting” and “supervisory.”


D.  Job Analysis Guidelines


1. Make the job analysis a joint effort by a human resources specialist, the worker and the worker’s supervisor.


2. If there are several employees doing the same job in different departments, collect job analysis information from employees in different departments, not just one.


3. Make sure the questions and process are clear to the employees.


4. Use several different tools for job analysis.


NOTES Educational Materials to Use





II. Methods for Collecting Job Analysis Information


An HR specialist (an HR specialist, job analyst, or consultant), a worker, and the worker’s supervisor usually work together in conducting the job analysis.  Job analysis data is usually collected from employees and supervisors familiar with the job (subject matter experts) using interviews and questionnaires.  The data is then averaged, taking into account the departmental context of the employees, to determine how much time a typical employee spends on each of several specific tasks.  It is important to make sure that surveys and questions are clear and understandable, and that respondents are observed and questioned early in the process to allow time for adjustments, if needed.


A. The Interview


The three types of interviews managers use to collect job analysis data are: individual (to get the employee’s perspective on the job’s duties and responsibilities, group (when large numbers of employees perform the same job), and supervisor (to get his/her perspective on the job’s duties and responsibilities).


1. Typical Questions – “What is the job being performed?”  “In what      activities do you participate?” “What are the health and safety conditions?”  Figure 4-3 gives an example of a job analysis questionnaire for developing job descriptions.


2. Structured Interviews – You can also use a structured or checklist format to guide the interview.  Figure 4-3 presents one example, in this case, a job analysis information sheet.      

3. Pros & Cons – of using an interview are that it is: simple, quick, and more comprehensive because the interviewer can unearth activities that may never appear in written form.  The main problem is distortion, which may arise from the jobholder’s need to impress the perceptions of others.

B.  Questionnaires

   

Structured or unstructured questionnaires may be used to obtain job analysis information (see Figure 4-3).  Questionnaires can be a quick, efficient way of gathering information from a large number of employees.  But, developing and testing a questionnaire can be expensive and time consuming.


C.  Observation


Direct observations are useful when jobs consist of mainly observable physical activity as opposed to mental activity.  Reactivity can be a problem with direct observations, which is where the worker changes what he/she normally does because he/she is being watched.  Managers often use direct observation and interviewing together.


D. Participant Diary/Logs


The employee records every activity he/she engages in, in a diary or log along with the amount of time to perform each activity to produce a complete picture of the job. Pocket dictating machines can help remind the worker to enter data at specific times, and eliminates the challenge of trying to remember at a later time what was done.


E. Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques


     1. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is a questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs, (see Figure 4-5) on five basic activities:  1) having decision-making/communication/social responsibilities, 2) performing skilled activities, 3) being physically active, 4) operating vehicles/equipment, and 5) processing information. 


     2. Department of Labor Procedure (DOL) is a standardized method for rating, classifying, and comparing virtually every kind of job based on data, people, and things.  Table 4-1 shows a set of basic activities, and Figure 4-6 gives a sample summary.


F.   Internet-Based Job Analysis 


Standardized questionnaires are frequently distributed, with instructions, via the Internet or intranet. The danger is that important points may be missed or misunderstood, clouding results. The Department of Labor’s O*NET method can help overcome these difficulties. Figure 4-7 shows selected general work activities.


NOTES Educational Materials to Use





III. Writing Job Descriptions


Figures 4-8 presents a sample form of a job description. 


A.  Job Identification – contains the job title, the FLSA status, date, and possible space to indicate who approved the description, the location of the job, the immediate supervisor’s title, salary, and/or pay scale.


B.  Job Summary – should describe the general nature of the job, and includes only its major functions or activities.


C.  Relationships – occasionally a relationships statement is included.  It shows the jobholders’ relationships with others inside and outside the organization.


D. Responsibilities and Duties – The job analysis itself will provide information about what employees are doing on the job. The DOL’s Dictionary of Occupational Titles or other online sources can be used for itemizing the job’s duties and responsibilities.


Know Your Employment Law: Writing Job Descriptions that Comply with 

the ADA – Under the ADA, individuals must have the requisite skills,       

educational background, and experience to perform the job’s essential 

functions.  If the disabled individual can’t perform the job as currently structured, the employer is required to make a “reasonable accommodation” unless doing so would present an “undue hardship.”  There are a number of questions that can be asked to determine whether a function is essential.


E. Standards of Performance and Working Conditions – states the standards the employee is expected to achieve under each of the job description’s main duties and responsibilities. 


F.  Using the Internet for Writing Job Descriptions – Internet sites such as www.jobdescription.com and O*NET found at http://online.onetcenter.org/ are useful Web tools for developing job descriptions.  


IV. Managing the New Workforce


A. Writing Job Descriptions That Comply with the ADA – Virtually all ADA legal actions will revolve around the question, “What are the essential functions of the job?”  Without a job description that lists such functions, it will be hard to convince a court that the functions are essential to the job.


B. Essential job functions are the job duties that employees must be able to perform, with or without reasonable accommodation.


C. Is a function essential?  Questions to ask would include, for example, what three or four main activities actually constitute the job?  Or, is each function listed really necessary?


                    Duty:  Meeting Daily Production Schedule


D. Using the Internet for Writing Job Descriptions – Most employers probably still want to write their own job descriptions, but more are turning to the Internet for assistance.

1. O*Net – The U.S. Department of Labor’s occupational information network, called O*NET, is an increasingly popular Web tool found at http://online.onecenter.org.


NOTES Educational Materials to Use





V. Writing Job Specifications


A.  Specifications for Trained Versus Untrained Personnel


Writing job specifications for trained employees is relatively straightforward because they are likely to focus on traits like length of previous service, quality of relevant training, and previous job performance.  Writing job specifications for untrained employees is more complex because they are more likely to specify qualities such as physical traits, personality, interests, or sensory skills that imply some potential for performing or being trained to perform on the job.


B.  Specifications Based on Judgment


     1. Job specifications may come from educated guesses or judgments, or from competencies listed in Web-based job descriptions like those listed at www.jobdescription.com or O*Net online (http://online.onetcenter.org).  


2. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles is also a useful source.  The Dictionary assigns ratings and letters to human requirement or traits as follows:  G (intelligence), V (verbal), N (numerical), S (spatial), P (perception), Q (clerical perception), K (motor coordination), F (finger dexterity), M (manual dexterity), E (eye-hand-foot coordination), and C (color discrimination).


3. Research Insight – One researcher found that regardless of the job, the following are some examples of generic job-related behaviors: industriousness; thoroughness, schedule flexibility, attendance, off-task behavior (reverse), unruliness (reverse), theft (reverse), and drug misuse (reverse).


C.  Job Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis


     1. Basing job specifications on statistical analysis is more defensible, but a more difficult approach than the judgmental approach.


     2. The aim of the statistical approach is to determine statistically the relationship between 1) some predictor or human trait such as height, intelligence, or finger dexterity, and 2) some indicator or criterion of job effectiveness.


     3. The five steps in statistical analysis are: a) analyze the job and decide how to measure job performance; b) select personal traits like finger dexterity that you believe should predict successful performance; c) test candidates for these traits; d) measure these candidates’ subsequent job performance; and e) statistically analyze the relationship between the human trait and job performance.


When You’re on Your Own – HR for Line Managers and Entrepreneurs.  This dialogue discusses the challenges that an HR manager or business owner has in a small organization.  First, they need a more streamlined approach, and second, there is always the concern that in writing their job descriptions, they will overlook duties that subordinates should be assigned, or assign duties not usually associated with such positions.  Provided here are three resources (The Dictionary of Occupational Titles; Web sites like www.jobdescription.com; and the Department of Labor’s O’NET) with a step-by-step guide for the manager in this situation.  You may want to use this opportunity to discuss the differences between large and small organizations as related to job analysis tasks.


NOTES Educational Materials to Use





VI. Job Analysis in a Worker-Empowered World


We think of a “job” as more or less an unchanging specific set of duties that one carries out for pay.  However, over the years, that concept has been changing quite dramatically.  Indeed, for employees at many organizations, what they do on their jobs changes almost each day.


A.  From Specialized to Enlarged Jobs


     1. A “job” as we know it today is largely an outgrowth of the industrial revolution’s emphasis on efficiency.


     2. Job enlargement involves assigning workers additional same-level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform.


     3. Job rotation is systematically moving workers from one job to another.


     4. Job enrichment involves redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.


B.  Organizations are now encouraging employees not to limit themselves to what is listed on their job descriptions for the following reasons:


     1. Flatter organizations with three or four levels of management are becoming more prevalent than the traditional pyramid-shaped organizations with seven or more layers of management.


     2. Self-managed work teams, where tasks are organized around teams and processes rather than around specialized functions, are being used increasingly more by organizations.

     3. Reengineering refers to fundamentally rethinking and radically redesigning business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in performance measures.   



C. Competency-Based Job Analysis 


Employers are shifting towards newer approaches for describing  

jobs, such as competency-based analysis to support the flexibility needed in high performance work environments where employers need workers to seamlessly move from job to job and exercise self-control.


1. What are Competencies? – Competencies are defined as demonstrable characteristics of the person that enable him/her to do the job. They are observable and measurable. 


2. Three Reasons to Use Competency Analysis – First, traditional job descriptions may actually backfire if a high performance work system is the goal.  Second, describing the job in terms of skills, knowledge and competencies needed is more strategic. Third, measurable skills, knowledge, and competencies are the heart of any company’s performance management system.


3. Examples of competencies – These can include general competencies (such as reading, writing, and mathematical reasoning), leadership competencies (leadership, strategic thinking, teaching others) and technical competencies (specific technical competencies required for specific types of jobs).


4. Comparing traditional versus competency-based job analysis – competency based analysis is more measurable, where some of the job’s essential duties and responsibilities are expressed as competencies.


VI. How to Write Job Competencies–Based Job Descriptions


A. Defining the job’s competencies and writing them up involves a process similar in most respects to traditional job analysis, interviewing incumbents and their supervisors, identifying job responsibilities and activities.

accomplish their goals.  This interesting shift should be one that could generate discussion in the class.  Ask class members questions such as: 


“So how do you know if you are doing your job?”

“How would performance appraisals be done?”

“How do you ensure fairness between employees?”

“How do you keep your employee doing what he or she should?”


VII. Why Competency Analysis


 There are two reasons to consider describing jobs in terms of competencies rather than (or in addition to) duties.  First, traditional job descriptions may actually backfire if a high-performance work system is your goal.  And second, describing jobs in terms of skills can help the company support its strategic aims. 

A. B. BP Example - a growing number of firms are shifting to HR systems that don’t use job descriptions.  So what replaces them?  This discussion examines what British Petroleum’s Exploration Division has done.  They use a matrix of skills and skill levels.  The major purpose was to shift employees from thinking in terms of “it’s not my job” to thinking about what new skills they needed to


NOTES Educational Materials to Use





Teaching Tip – It is helpful to show your students the O*NET (http://online.onetcenter.org/) where they’ll be able to see the extensive skills lists available for many jobs. Students can be assigned to outline the skills required by a job they have previously held or currently hold. Students are frequently involved in a job search at the end of their college programs. Suggest also that skill lists such as are found in O*NET are useful in resume writing.


DISCUSSION QUESTIONS


1. What items are typically included in the job description?  What items are not shown?  A job description is a written statement of what the jobholder actually does, how he or she does it, and under what conditions the job is performed.  There is no standard format for writing job descriptions, but most descriptions include sections on:


job identification

job summary

relationships, responsibilities, and duties

authority of incumbent

standards of performance

working conditions

job specifications


2. What is job analysis?  How can you make use of the information it provides?  Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties and nature of the jobs and the kinds of people who should be hired for them.  You can utilize the information it provides to write job descriptions and job specifications, which are utilized in recruitment and selection, compensation, performance appraisal, and training. 

 

3. We discussed several methods for collecting job analysis data—questionnaires, the position analysis questionnaire, and so on.  Compare and contrast these methods, explaining what each is useful for and listing the pros and cons of each.  Interviews are probably the most widely used method of collecting information for job analysis.  The interview allows the incumbent to report activities that might not otherwise come to light (mental activities and activities that occur only occasionally).  Observation is useful for jobs that consist mainly of physical activity that is clearly observable.  Questionnaires are a quick and efficient way of obtaining information from a large number of employees; however, development costs can be high.  Participant diary/logs can provide a comprehensive picture of a job, especially when supplemented with interviews; however, many employees do not respond well to the request to record all their daily activities.  Quantitative job analysis techniques, such as PAQ, DOL, and Functional Job Analysis are more appropriate when the aim is to assign a quantitative value to each job so that jobs can be compared for pay purposes. 


4. Describe the types of information typically found in a job specification.  It should include a list of the human traits and experience needed to perform the job.  These might include education, skills, behaviors, personality traits, work experience, sensory skills, etc.  


5. Explain how you would conduct a job analysis.  There are six major steps in a well-conducted job analysis:  1) Determine how the job analysis information will be used and how to collect the necessary information; 2) Collect background information such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions; 3) Select representative positions to be analyzed; 4) Collect job analysis information; 5) Review the information with the participants; 6) Develop job descriptions and job specifications.


6. Do you think companies can really do without detailed job descriptions?  Why or why not?  Either side is an acceptable position to take.  The key to grading this answer is the quality of the “why or why not” explanations.  Look for students to clearly explain their position in terms of the effects of the lack of job descriptions on the performance, motivation, and capabilities of the people doing the job.  In light of the Americans with Disabilities Act, discussions should also touch upon how an organization can adequately identify the “essential functions” of jobs without job descriptions.


7.  In a company with only 25 employees, is there less need for job descriptions?  Why or why not?  It is clearly more difficult to write job descriptions for positions that may have broad responsibilities because of the organization’s size.  This does not, however, mean that it is less important.  Look for sound arguments and reasoning. Again, the ADA applies to companies with as few as 15 employees. What other ways can a small employer successfully document the “essential functions” of a job?


Teaching Tip: Small and large employers are often willing to speak to a class about their experiences, for example, how they develop and use job descriptions within their organizations. If you do not know an employer to call, the local Chamber of Commerce in your community can be a resource. 


INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACTIVITIES



1. Working individually or in groups, obtain copies of job descriptions for clerical positions at the college or university where you study, or the firm where you work.  What types of information do they contain?  Do they give you enough information to explain what the job involves and how to do it?  How would you improve on the descriptions?  Based on our experience, it is very likely that at least some of the job descriptions will not contain all the information that is supposed to be there.  Use this as an opportunity to discuss the problems that may be created by the missing information.


2. Working individually or in groups, use O*Net to develop a job description for your professor in this class.  Based on that, use your judgement to develop a job specification.  Compare your conclusions with those of other students or groups.  Were there any significant differences?  What do you think accounted for the differences? The students should go to the O*Net Web site at http://online.onetcenter.org to find sample job descriptions in order to create a job description for you.  Once they create a job description for you, they should develop a job specification.


3. The HRCI “Test Specifications” appendix at the end of this book lists the knowledge someone studying for the HRCI certification exam needs to know in each area of human resource management (such as in Strategic management, Workforce Planning, and Human Resource Development).  In groups of 4-5 students, do four things: (1) review that appendix now; (2) identify the material in this chapter that relates to the required knowledge the appendix lists; (3) write four multiple-choice exam questions on this material that you believe would be suitable for inclusion in the HRCI exam; and (4) if time permits, have someone from your team post your team’s questions in front of the class, so the students on other teams can take each other’s exam questions.  Topics covered in this chapter would include job analysis to write job descriptions and develop job competencies; identification and documentation of essential job functions for positions; and establishing hiring criteria based on the competencies needed. 


Following are some examples of possible multiple-choice questions:


1. The procedure through which you determine the duties of positions and the characteristics of the people to hire for them is called:

a. competency-based analysis

b. job specifications

c. job analysis (correct answer)

d. job descriptions


2. Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques include the following:

a. interviews

b. questionnaires

c. observation

d. functional job analysis (correct answer)


3. Essential Job Functions are:

a. part of a job description

b. the reason the position exists

c. the job duties that employees must be able to perform, with or without reasonable accommodation

d. all of the above (correct answer)


4. Competency-Based Job Analysis:

a. is better than traditional job analysis

b. focuses more on how the worker meets the job’s objectives or actually accomplishes the work  (correct answer)

c. is more tactical than strategic

d. breeds a “that’s not my job” attitude

 

EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES & CASES

Experiential Exercise:  The Instructor’s Job Description 


Purpose:  The purpose of this exercise is to give you experience in developing a job description by developing one for your instructor.


Required Understanding:  Students should understand the mechanics of job analysis and be thoroughly familiar with the job analysis questionnaires (see Figure 4-3 and the job description questionnaire, Figure 4-8)


How to Set Up the Exercise/Instructions:  


First, set up an even number of groups, preferably with each group consisting of four to six students.  The groups should be separated and should not converse with each other.  Half the groups in the class will develop a job description for the instructor’s position using the job analysis questionnaire (Figure 4-3), and the other half of the groups will develop it using the job description questionnaire (Figure 4.10).  Each student should first review the appropriate questionnaire. 

Next, each group will develop its own job specification for the instructor.

Next, each group should choose a partner group, one that developed the job description and job specification using the alternate method. (i.e., a group that used the job analysis questionnaire should be paired with a group that used the job description questionnaire)

Finally, within each of these new combined groups, compare and critique each of the two sets of job descriptions and job specifications.  Did each job analysis method provide different types of information?  Which seems superior?  Does one seem more advantageous for some types of jobs than others?


Application Case:  Tropical Storm Wilma


1. Should Phil and Linda ignore the old timers' protests and write up the job descriptions as they see fit?  Why?  How would you go about resolving the differences?  In all likelihood, the old timers are accurate in their descriptions.  There are several of them, and it appears that all of their descriptions agree.  Also, since they were the ones actually doing the work, it is likely that they were the only ones who knew what was actually being done.  One way to resolve the differences would be to examine the specific items that Phil and Maybelline feel the old timers are padding their jobs with.  Ask for evidence from the old timers that they did these functions, and ask for evidence from Phil and Maybelline that someone else carried out those tasks.


2. How would you have conducted the job analysis?  What should Phil do now?  Other options may have been to conduct personal interviews instead of the questionnaires.  However, it is unlikely that the resulting disagreement would have been avoided by using another method.  The method they used was a good one.  Phil has several courses of action available to him.  The best may be to allow the process to go on with the old timers’ job descriptions.


Continuing Case:  Carter Cleaning Company - The Job Description


1. What should be the format and final form of the store manager’s job description?   The format noted in Figure 4-7 could be a reasonable format to use.   Students may recommend that Jennifer include a standards of performance section in the job description.  This lists the standards the employee is expected to achieve under each of the job description’s main duties and responsibilities, and would address the problem of employees not understanding company policies, procedures, and expectations.  In addition, students may recommend that Jennifer instead take a competency-based approach, which describes the job in terms of the measurable, observable, behavioral competencies that an employee doing that job must exhibit.  Because competency analysis focuses more on “how” the worker meets the job’s objectives or actually accomplishes the work, it is more worker focused.


2. Is it practical to specify standards and procedures in the body of the job description, or should these be kept separately?  They do not need to be kept separately, and in fact both Jennifer and the employees would be better served by incorporating standards and procedures into the body of the description.  The exception to this would be if the standards and procedures are so complex or involved that it becomes more pragmatic to maintain a separate procedures manual.


3. How should Jennifer go about collecting the information required for the standards, procedures, and job description?   She should first go about conducting the job analysis, collecting information about the work activities, human behaviors, machines, tools, equipment, and work aids, performance standards, job context, and human requirements.  The best methods for collecting this information in this case are through interview, questionnaires, observation, and diaries/logs maintained by employees,   In addition, she should ensure that she is identifying the essential functions of the job, and that the descriptions are ADA compliant.


4. What, in your opinion, should the store manager’s job description look like and contain?  The store manager’s job description should include a list of the job’s significant responsibilities and duties.  For example, the following duties should include quality control, store appearance and cleanliness, customer relations, bookkeeping and cash management, cost control and productivity, damage control, pricing, inventory control, etc.  The job description should also include any educational requirements as well as information regarding working conditions.


Translating Strategy into HR Policies and Practice Case: The Hotel Paris 

 Job Descriptions – The continuing case study of Hotel Paris is discussed here. In this example, students develop a job description for the front desk clerk position and identify important employee behaviors for Hotel Paris’ staff based on hotel strategy. 


1. Based on the hotel’s stated strategy, list at least four important employee behaviors for Hotel Paris’ staff.

Student answers will vary. Important employee behaviors might include:

The ability to project a positive attitude and put the customer’s needs first, even if the customer is curt

Showing tact and discretion in responding to personal requests from a hotel guest

Being aware of the reactions of others and responding to those reactions in an appropriate way

Being able to handle multiple priorities without getting “flustered”

The ability to resolve billing issues with discretion and a positive demeanor


2. If time permits, spend some time prior to class observing the front desk clerk at a local hotel. In any case, develop a job description for a Hotel Paris front desk clerk. 


Use of O*NET is recommended. A full description of tasks and responsibilities is located under the job title “Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks.”


KEY TERMS


job analysis The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.


job description A list of a job's duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities – one product of a job analysis.


job specifications A list of a job's "human requirements;" that is, the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on – another product of a job analysis.


organization chart A chart that shows the organization-wide distribution of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show who reports to and communicates with whom.


process chart A work flow chart that shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a particular job.


diary/log Daily listings made by workers of every activity in which they engage along with the time each activity takes.


position analysis A questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties

questionnaire (PAQ) and responsibilities of various jobs.

Standard Occupational Classifies all workers into one of 23 major groups of jobs, which are

Classification (SOC) subdivided into minor groups of jobs and detailed occupations.


job enlargement Assigning workers additional same-level responsibilities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform.


job rotation Systematically moving workers from one job to another.


job enrichment Redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.


competency-based Describing the job in terms of the measurable, observable, behavioral

job analysis competencies (knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors) that an employee doing that job must exhibit to do the job well. 



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