当前位置:首頁 > 講座會議 > 正文内容

TRAINING EVALUATION

TRAINING EVALUATION


111.jpg

中国经济管理大学MBA公益课堂:



This chapter provides an overview of how to evaluate training programs, including the types of outcomes that need to be measured and the types of evaluation designs available. The chapter focuses on the evaluation of training programs and learner outcomes. It explains the criticality of evaluating whether the training has accomplished its objectives and, particularly, whether job performance and organizational results have improved as a result. Formative and summative evaluation are discussed and compared and reasons for evaluating are identified. The process of evaluating training is outlined and outcomes used to evaluate training are described in some detail. Kirkpatrick’s five-level framework incorporating five major levels of evaluation is highlighted, and the six major categories of outcomes are presented more extensively. Another important issue, regarding how good the designated outcomes are, is addressed. Perhaps most importantly, evaluation designs, important elements of evaluation design, and the preservation of internal validity are discussed as well as the calculation of return on investment for the training dollar. In an environment of accountability, knowledge of how to show return on investment is invaluable. Further, this chapter gives the student knowledge of the various evaluation strategies and how to choose an approach. A list of key terms, discussion questions, and application assignments follow the end of the chapter.



Objectives


1. Explain why evaluation is important.

2. Identify and choose outcomes to evaluate a training program.

3. Discuss the process used to plan and implement a good training evaluation.

4. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of different evaluation designs.

5. Choose the appropriate evaluation design based on the characteristics of the company and the importance and purpose of the training.

6. Conduct a cost-benefit analysis for a training program.

7. Explain the role of workforce analytics and dashboards in determining the value of training practices.



I. Introduction


A. Training effectiveness refers to the benefits that the company and the trainees experience as a result of training. Benefits for the trainees include learning new knowledge, skills, and behaviors. Potential benefits for the company include increased sales, improved quality and more satisfied customers.

B. Training outcomes or criteria refer to measures that the trainer and the company use to evaluate training programs.

C. Training evaluation refers to the process of collecting data regarding outcomes needed to determine whether training is effective.

D. Evaluation design refers to the collection of information—including what, when, how, and from whom—that will be used to determine the effectiveness of the training program.


II. Reasons for Evaluating Training


A. Companies have made large dollar investments in training and education and view training as a strategy to be successful, they expect the outcomes or benefits related to training to be measurable.

B. Training evaluation provides a way to understand the investments that training produces and provides information needed to improve training.


Formative Evaluation

Formative evaluation refers to the evaluation of training that takes place during program design and development. It is conducted to improve the training process; ensuring that the training program is well-organized and runs smoothly and trainees are learning and are satisfied with the training.

A. As a result of the formative evaluation, training content may be changed to be more accurate, easier to understand, or more appealing; the training method can be adjusted to improve learning.

B. Introducing the training program as early as possible to managers and customers helps in getting them to buy into the program, which is critical for their role in helping employees learn and transfer skills; it also allows their concerns to be addressed before the program is implemented.

C. Pilot testing is the process of previewing a training program with potential trainees and their managers, or other customers. The pilot testing group is then asked to provide feedback about the content of the training as well as the methods of delivery. This feedback enables the trainer to make needed improvements to the training.


Summative Evaluation

Summative evaluation is evaluation conducted to determine the extent to which trainees have improved or acquired knowledge, skills attitudes, behaviors, or other outcomes specified in the learning objectives, as a result of the training. Reasons training programs should be evaluated:

A. To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses, including whether the program is meeting the learning objectives, the quality of the learning environment, and if transfer of training back to the job is occurring.

B. To assess whether the various features of the training context and content contribute to learning and the transfer of learning back to the job.

C. To identify which trainees benefited most or least from the program and why.

D. To gather information, such as trainees’ testimonials, to use for marketing training programs.

E. To determine financial benefits and costs of the program.

F. To compare the costs and benefits of training versus other human resource investments.

G. To compare the costs and benefits of various training programs in order to choose the most effective programs.


III. Overview of the Evaluation Process


A. The evaluation process should begin with determining training needs. Needs assessment helps identify what knowledge, skills, behavior, or other learned capabilities are needed.

B. The next step in the process is to identify specific, measurable training objectives to guide the program.

C. Based on the learning objectives and analysis of transfer of training, outcome measures are designed to assess the extent to which learning and transfer have occurred.

D. Once the outcomes have been identified, the next step is to determine an evaluation strategy. Factors such as expertise, how quickly the information is needed, change potential, and the organizational culture should be considered in choosing a design.

E. Planning and executing the evaluation involves previewing the program (formative evaluation), as well as collecting training outcomes according to the evaluation design. The results of the evaluation are used to modify, market, or gain additional support for the program.


IV. Outcomes Used in the Evaluation of Training Programs


One of the original frameworks (five-level) for identifying and categorizing training outcomes was developed by Kirkpatrick. Levels 1 and 2 measures are collected before trainees return to their jobs. Levels 3, 4, and 5criteria measure the extent to which the training transfers back to the job.


Reaction Outcomes

Reaction outcomes refer to the trainees’ perceptions of the training experience, including the content, the facilities, the trainer and the methods of delivery. These perceptions are typically obtained at the end of the training session via a questionnaire completed by trainees, but usually are only weakly related to learning or transfer.


Learning or Cognitive Outcomes

Cognitive outcomes demonstrate the extent to which trainees are familiar with information, including principles, facts, techniques, procedures, and processes, covered in the training program.


Behavior and Skill-Based Outcomes

Skill-based outcomes assess the level of technical or motor skills and behaviors acquired or mastered. This incorporates both the learning of skills and the application of them (i.e., transfer).

A. Skill learning is often assessed by observing performance in work samples such as simulators.

B. Skill transfer is typically assessed by observing trainees on the job or managerial and peer ratings.


 

Affective Outcomes

Affective outcomes include attitudes and motivation. Affective outcomes that might be collected in an evaluation include tolerance for diversity, motivation to learn, safety attitudes, and customer service orientation. The attitude of interest depends on training objectives.


Results

Results are those outcomes used to determine the benefits of the training program to the company. Examples include reduced costs related to employee turnover or accidents, increased production, and improved quality or customer service.


Return on Investment

Return on Investment involves comparing the training program’s benefits in monetary terms to the program’s costs, both direct and indirect.

A. Direct costs include salaries and benefits of trainees, trainers, consultants, and any others involved in the training; program materials and supplies; equipment and facilities; and travel costs.

B. Indirect costs include office supplies, facilities, equipment and related expenses not directly related to the training program; travel and expenses not billed to one particular program; and training department management and staff support salaries.

C. Benefits are the value the company receives from the training.

D. Training Quality Index (TQI) is a computer application that collects data about training department performance, productivity, budget, and courses and allows for detailed analysis of the data. TQI tracks all department training data into five categories: effectiveness, quantity, perceptions, financial impact, and operational impact.


V. Determining Whether Outcomes are Appropriate


Relevance

A. Criteria relevance refers to the extent to which training outcomes appropriately reflect the content of the training program. The learned capabilities needed to successfully complete the training program should be the same as those required to successfully perform one’s job.

B. Criterion contamination refers to the extent that training outcomes measure inappropriate capabilities or is affected by extraneous conditions.

C. Criterion deficiency refers to the failure of the training evaluation measures to reflect all that was covered in the training program.


Reliability

Reliability is the degree to which training outcomes can be measured consistently over time. Predominantly, we are concerned with consistency over time, such that a reliable test contains items that do not change in meaning or interpretation over time.


 

Discrimination

Discrimination refers to the degree to which trainees’ performance on the outcome actually reflects true differences in performance; that is, we want the test to discriminate on the basis of performance and not other things.


Practicality

Practicality is the ease with which the outcome measures can be collected. One reason companies give for not including learning, performance, and behavior outcomes in their evaluation of training programs is that collecting them is too burdensome.


VI. Evaluation Practices


Surveys of companies’ evaluation practices indicate that reactions (an affective outcome) and cognitive outcomes are the most frequently used outcomes in training evaluation. Despite the less frequent use of cognitive, behavioral, and results outcomes, research suggests that training can have a positive effect on these outcomes.


Which Training Outcomes Should Be Collected?

A. To ensure adequate training evaluation, companies should collect outcome measures related to both learning and transfer of training.

B. Outcome measures are largely independent of each other; it cannot be assumed that positive reactions to the training program mean that trainees learned more and will apply what they learned back on the job.

C. To the extent possible, evaluations should include measuring job behavior and results level outcomes to determine whether transfer of the training has occurred.

D. Learning, behavior, and results should be measured after sufficient time has elapsed to determine whether training has had an influence on these outcomes.

E. There are three types of transfer:

1. Positive transfer is demonstrated when learning occurs and job performance and positive changes in skill-based, affective, or results outcomes are also observed. This is the desirable type of transfer.

2. No transfer of training is demonstrated if learning occurs, but no changes are observed in skill-based, affective, or learning outcomes.

3. Negative transfer is evident when learning occurs, but skills, affective outcomes, or results are less than at pretraining levels.


VII. Evaluation Designs


The design of the training evaluation determines the confidence that can be placed in the results. No training evaluation can be absolutely certain that the results of the evaluation are completely true.


 

Threats to Validity: Alternative Explanations for Evaluation Results.

A. Threats to validity refer to factors that will lead an evaluator to question either (1) the believability of the study results or (2) the extent to which the evaluation results are generalizable to other groups of trainees and situations.

B. Internal validity is the believability of the study. An evaluation study needs internal validity to provide confidence that the results of the evaluation are due to the training program and not to another factor.

C. External validity refers to the generalizability of the evaluation results to other groups and other situations.

D. Methods to control for threats to validity:

1. Use pre-tests and post-tests to determine the extent to which trainees’ knowledge, skills or behaviors have changed from pretraining to post-training measures. The pretraining measure essentially establishes a baseline.

2. Use a comparison (or control) group (i.e., a group that participates in the evaluation study, but does not receive the training) to rule out factors other than training as the cause of changes in the trainees. The group that does receive the training is referred to as the training group or treatment group. Often employees in an evaluation will perform higher just because of the attention they are receiving. This is known as the Hawthorne effect.

3. Random assignment refers to assigning employees to the control and training groups on the basis of chance. Randomization helps to ensure that members of the control group and training group are of similar makeup prior to the training. It can be impractical and/or even impossible to employ in company settings.


Types of Evaluation Designs

Types of evaluation designs vary as to whether they include a pretest and posttest, a control or comparison group and randomization.

A. The posttest only design involves collecting only posttraining outcome measures. It would be strengthened by the use of a control group, which would help to rule out alternative explanations for changes in performance.

B. The pretest/posttest design involves collecting both pretraining and posttraining outcome measures to determine whether a change has occurred, but without a control group which helps to rule out alternative explanations for any change that does occur.

C. The pretest/posttest with comparison group design includes pretraining and posttraining outcome measurements as well as a comparison group in addition to the group that receives training. If the posttraining improvement is greater for the group that receives training, as we would expect, this provides evidence that training was responsible for the change.

D. The time series design involves collecting outcome measurements at periodic intervals pre- and posttraining. A comparison group may also be used. The strength of this design can be improved by using reversal, which refers to a time period in which participants no longer receive the training intervention. Its advantage are: it allows an analysis of the stability of training outcomes over time, and using both the reversal and comparison group helps to rule out alternative explanations for the evaluation results.

E. The Solomon Four-Group design combines the pretest/posttest comparison group design and the posttest-only control group design. It involves the use of four groups: a training group and comparison group for which outcomes are measured both pre and post training and a training group and comparison group for which outcomes are measured only after training. This design provides the most controls for internal and external validity.


Considerations in Choosing an Evaluation Design

A. A more rigorous evaluation design should be considered if any of the following conditions are true:

1. The evaluation results can be used to change the program.

2. The training program is ongoing and has the potential to affect many employees.

3. The training program involves multiple classes and a large number of trainees.

4. Cost justification for training is based on numerical indicators.

5. Trainers or others in the company have the expertise to design and evaluate the data collected from an evaluation study.

6. The cost of the training creates a need to show that it works.

7. There is sufficient time for conducting an evaluation. Here, information regarding training effectiveness is not needed immediately.

8. There is interest in measuring change from pretraining levels or in comparing two or more different programs.

B. Evaluation designs without pretesting or comparison groups are most appropriate when you are interested only in whether a specific level of performance has been achieved, and not how much change has occurred.


VIII. Determining Return on Investment


A. Cost-benefit analysis of training is the process of determining the net economic benefits of training using accounting methods. Training cost information is important for several reasons:

1. To understand total expenditures for training, including direct and indirect costs

2. To compare the costs of alternative training programs

3. To evaluate the proportion of the training budget spent on the development of training, administrative costs, and evaluation as well as how much is spent on various types of employees e.g., exempt versus nonexempt

4. To control costs

B. There is an increased interest in measuring the ROI of training and development programs because of the need to show the results of these programs to justify funding and to increase the status of the training and development function.

C. The process of determining ROI:

1. Understand the objectives of the training program.

2. Isolate the effects of training from other factors that might influence the data.

3. The data are converted to a monetary value and ROI is calculated.

D. Because ROI analysis can be costly, it should be limited only to certain training programs.


 

Determining costs

A. The resource requirements model compares equipment, facilities, personnel, and materials costs across different stages of the training process (needs assessment, development, training design, implementation, and evaluation).

B. There are seven categories of cost sources: costs related to program development or purchase; instructional materials; equipment and hardware; facilities; travel and lodging; and salary of the trainer and support staff along with the cost of either lost productivity or replacement workers while trainees are away from their jobs for the training.


Determining Benefits

A. Determining benefits can be done via a number of methods, including:

1. Technical, practitioner and academic literature summarizes benefits of training programs.

2. Pilot training programs assess the benefits from a small group of trainees before a company commits more resources.

3. Observing successful job performers can help to determine what successful job performers do differently than unsuccessful performers.

4. Asking trainees and their managers to provide estimates of training benefits.

B. To calculate return on investment, follow these steps:

1. Identify outcomes.

2. Place a value on the outcomes.

3. Determine the change in performance after eliminating other potential influences on training results.

4. Obtain an annual amount of benefits from training by comparing results after training to results before training.

5. Determine the training costs.

6. Calculate the total savings by subtracting the training costs from benefits.

7. Calculate the ROI by dividing benefits by costs. The ROI gives an estimate of the dollar return expected from each dollar invested in training.


Example of a Cost-Benefit Analysis

A cost-benefit analysis is best explained by an example.


Other Methods of Cost-Benefit Analysis

A. Utility analysis assesses the dollar value of training based on estimates of the difference in job performance between trained and untrained employees, the number of employees trained, the length of time the program is expected to influence performance, and the variability in job performance in the untrained group of employees. This is a highly sophisticated formula that requires the use of pretest and posttest with a comparison group.

B. Other types of economic analysis evaluate training as it benefits the firm or government using direct and indirect costs, incentives paid by the government for training, wage increases received by trainees as a result of the training, tax rates, and discount rates.


 

Practical Considerations in Determining Return on Investment

Training programs best suited for ROI analysis have clearly identified outcomes, are not one-time events, are highly visible in the company, are strategically focused, and have effects that can be isolated.


Success Cases and Return on Expectations

A. Return on expectations (ROE) refers to the process through which evaluation demonstrates to key business stakeholders, such as top-level managers, that their expectations about training have been satisfied.

B. Success cases refer to concrete examples of the impact of training that show how learning has led to results that the company finds worthwhile and the managers find credible.


IX. Measuring Human Capital and Training Activity


A. Metrics are valuable for benchmarking purposes, for understanding the current amount of training activity in a company, and for tracking historical trends in training activity.

B. The value of learning activities is best determined through the use of workforce analytics. Workforce analytics refers to the practice of using quantitative methods and scientific methods to analyze data from human resource databases, corporate financial statements, employee surveys, and other datasources to make evidence-based decisions and show that human resource practices (including training, development, and learning) influence important company metrics.

C. Dashboards refer to a computer interface designed to receive and analyze the data from departments within the company to provide information to managers and other decisionmakers.



Chapter Summary


This chapter provides sound base of knowledge regarding training evaluation, the issues surrounding it, and how to approach it. Reasons for evaluating training were described, and the process of evaluating training was outlined. Kirkpatrick’s model of evaluation was explained, as well as the five major categories of outcomes that can be measured to evaluate training effectiveness. The six outcomes (reaction, cognitive, skill-based, affective, results, and ROI) used in evaluating training programs were explained. Good training outcomes need to be relevant, reliable, discriminate, and practical. Next, threats to both internal and external validity were discussed. Various evaluation designs were explained with an emphasis on related costs, time, and strength. Return on Investment (ROI) and cost-benefit analysis were explained, and examples given. The chapter concluded with a listing of key terms, discussion questions, and application assignments.



 

Discussion Questions


1. What can be done to motivate companies to evaluate training programs?


Answer: The company’s management would need to be made aware of the investment made by the company for the training and the need for its summative evaluation to determine if the training program is effective, and formatively evaluate it to identify its strengths and weaknesses to better accomplish training. Evaluation is vital to improving a training program, or deciding whether to replace it completely with a better program or a non-training option. (p. 234-235)


2. What do threats to validity have to do with training evaluation? Identify internal and external threats to validity. Are internal and external threats similar? Explain.


Answer: If threats to validity exist, the evaluator may question whether a training program was really effective or if possible benefits were the result of other factors. Internal threats to validity affect the believability of the study, while threats to the external validity affect the believability of the program’s benefits for future use. Characteristics of the company, the outcome measures, and the persons in the evaluation study are the internal threats to validity. Reaction to pretest, reaction to evaluation, interaction of selection and training, and interaction of methods are the external threats to validity. Internal and external threats are not similar. Threats to external validity relate to how study participants react to being included in the study and the effects of multiple types of training, whereas internal validity provides confidence that the results of the evaluation are due to the training program and not to another factor. (p. 249-250)


3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each of the following designs: posttest-only, pretest/posttest with comparison group, and pretest/posttest only?


Answer: A post-test-only design requires less time and effort than the other, but fails to recognize factors such as initial differences between the control group and the group that received the training. Pretest/post-test only acknowledges the performance of the trained group before the training, but ignores other business factors that may be occurring between the time of the two evaluations. Pretest/post-test with comparison group is the most thorough, acknowledging the highest number of factors, but involves the most time and effort to collect data. (p. 251-253)


4. What are results outcomes? Why do you think that most organizations don’t use results outcomes for evaluating their training programs?


Answer: Results outcomes are level 4 criteria in Kirkpatrick’s framework. They are the benefits of the training program for the company. These types of payoffs could be difficult to determine, as many are long-term benefits and are difficult to track, while for others, such as increased customer satisfaction it may be difficult to place an exact monetary value. (p. 243)


5. This chapter discussed several factors that influence the choice of evaluation design. Which of these factors would have the greatest influence on your choice of and evaluation design? Which would have the least influence? Explain your choices.


Answer: Student answers would vary. The factors that influence the choice of evaluation design are:

Change potential-which determines whether the program can be modified

Importance-which determines whether ineffective training affects customer service, product development, or relationships among employees

Scale-which determines the number of trainees involved

Purpose of training, which determines whether training is conducted for learning, results, or both

Organization culture-which determines whether demonstrating results is a part of company norms and expectations

Expertise-which determines the possibility of analyzing a complex study

Cost-which determines whether the evaluation is expensive

Time frame-which determines when the information is needed (p. 256; Table 6.11)


6. How might you estimate the benefits of a training program designed to teach employees how to use the Internet to monitor stock prices?


Answer: Test could be performed to see if the employees are capable of monitoring the stock prices; surveys could be used to see how frequently they monitor stock in a given day to determine how well they have integrated that knowledge into their behavior. Then employees could estimate how much behavior benefits the company. To determine the economic benefits of the training program, ROI can be calculated through a cost benefit analysis. Also, the following methods may help to identify the benefits of the training program:

Technical, academic, and practitioner literature summarizes the benefits that have been shown to relate to the specific training program.

Observance of successful job performers helps a company determine what successful job performers do differently than unsuccessful job performers.

Trainees and their managers provide estimates of training benefits. (p. 259)


7. A group of managers (N=25) participated in the problem-solving module of a leadership development program two weeks ago. The module consisted of two days in which the group focused on the correct process to use in problem solving. Each manager supervises fifteen to twenty employees. The company is willing to change the program, and there is an increasing emphasis in the company to show that training expenses are justifiable. You are asked to evaluate this program. Your boss would like the results of the evaluation no later than six weeks from now. Discuss the outcomes you would collect and the design you would use. How might your answer change if the managers have not yet attended the program?


Answer: If the evaluation is done after the program is completed, a posttest only design could be used, comparing the group of managers to a control group. Areas of evaluation may include looking at various decisions made by the managers over several weeks and determining their effectiveness in solving various problems, and the amount of time taken to organize solutions. The outcomes that would be collected will be skill-based and affective outcomes.


If the managers had not yet attended the program, they can be used as a comparison group or pre-test skills and productivity can be recorded for later comparison. Hence, pretest/post-test with comparison group method would be applied. (p. 241-242; 253)


8. What practical considerations need to be taken into account when calculating a training program’s ROI?


Answer: The costs and benefits of a training program must all be considered. The costs are usually calculated using accounting, while the benefits are not always as clearly defined. Showing the link between training and higher-level strategic business outcomes can be very problematic. The effects of training from other factors that might influence the data must be isolated. Lastly, the data is converted to a monetary value and ROI is calculated. (p. 263)


9. What metrics might be useful for evaluating the effectiveness of a company’s training function? Discuss and rate their importance.


Answer: Student’s answers will vary. The metrics are valuable for benchmarking purposes, for understanding the current amount of training activity in a company, and for tracking historical trends in training activity. However, collecting these metrics does not address such issues as whether training is effective or whether the company is using the data to make strategic training decisions. Each company needs to choose metrics that are related to its business strategy or goals. (p. 265; Table 6.15)


10. What is return on expectations (ROE)? How can it be used to show the costs and benefits of training without collecting statistics and conducting analyses? Explain its strengths and weaknesses compared to a cost-benefit analysis.


Answer: One way to establish the value of training and overcome the difficulty of evaluating training using a design that can rule out and isolate its effects on results is to rely on return on expectations. Return on expectations (ROE) refers to the process through which evaluation demonstrates to key business stakeholders, such as top-level managers, that their expectations about training have been satisfied. ROE depends on establishing a business partnership with business stakeholders from the start of a training program through its evaluation. The ROE is used as an estimate in an ROI analysis. (p. 264)



中国经济管理大学 终身教育平台.jpg

中国经济管理大学MBA公益课堂:

中国经济管理大学|中国经济管理大学|中国经济管理大学|中国经济管理大学培训|MBA实战|中国经济管理大学|MBA培训|硕士研究生|职业资格|管理培训 


中國經濟管理大學版權所有

本文链接:http://www.zhilu.org/post/748.html

分享给朋友:

“TRAINING EVALUATION” 的相关文章

中国经济管理大学 MBA公益开放课堂:《管理学原理》(全12讲)MBA工商管理专业教学资源库

中国经济管理大学 MBA公益开放课堂:《管理学原理》(全12讲)MBA工商管理专业教学资源库

中国经济管理大学MBA公益开放课堂《管理学原理》(全12讲)MBA工商管理专业教学资源库 ...

中国经济管理大学 MBA公益开放课堂:《员工选聘与培训管理》(全14讲)MBA工商管理专业教学资源库

中国经济管理大学 MBA公益开放课堂:《员工选聘与培训管理》(全14讲)MBA工商管理专业教学资源库

中国经济管理大学MBA公益开放课堂《员工选聘与培训管理》(全14讲)MBA工商管理专业教学资源库&n...

中国经济管理大学 MBA公益开放课堂:《品质管理学》(全11讲)MBA工商管理专业教学资源库

中国经济管理大学 MBA公益开放课堂:《品质管理学》(全11讲)MBA工商管理专业教学资源库

中国经济管理大学MBA公益开放课堂《品质管理学》(全11讲)MBA工商管理专业教学资源库 ...

中国经济管理大学 MBA公益开放课堂:《市场营销》(全12讲)MBA工商管理专业教学资源库

中国经济管理大学 MBA公益开放课堂:《市场营销》(全12讲)MBA工商管理专业教学资源库

中国经济管理大学MBA公益开放课堂《市场营销学》(全12讲)MBA工商管理专业教学资源库 ...

CHAPTER 6: TRANSPORTATION

CHAPTER 6: TRANSPORTATION講義:小保羅·R·墨菲《MBA物流學》(6)&nb...

Chapter 7: Transportation Management

Chapter 7: Transportation ManagementPART IIANSWERS...